OK, well, I've already hit the issues surrounding justice in an earlier post (#1342). Here's a collection of historical and scientific errors I noticed, based on my limited knowledge of astronomy, anatomy, geology, oceanography, archaeology & anthropology: Genesis 1:6-8 says God separated the waters by placing an expanse (the heavens) between them. The sun and moon are located in the expanse (Genesis 1:14), not above it, suggesting outside of the solar system you will find a virtual sea of water. Genesis 3 tells us childbirth is painful not because the child’s head is larger than the birth canal, thereby requiring the woman’s pelvis literally be pushed apart during childbirth, but because Eve ate some fruit. Perhaps God’s original intent was that babies would be born after only seven months, with much smaller brains, or that women’s hips were to be much wider to allow for painless childbirth, like our cousins the chimpanzees. Now we see that all women are punished for the action of one woman, an action she would have been incapable of understanding the consequences of given her inability to discern good from evil. Genesis 4:16-22 explains the origins of cities, pastoralist societies, music, metallurgy and polygyny. We should not be surprised that the first city was built by an agriculturalist, although we can legitimately ask just how many people were living in this “city”? After all, the only people on earth are theoretically Adam, Eve, Cain and his family and the former two would not be living in this exile’s city. Also, contrary to archaeological evidence, the Stone Age was apparently short-lived, just seven generations, while the Bronze Age and Iron Age appear in the same generation according to this passage - not approximately two thousand years apart as archaeologists suggest. Based on the chronology presented in Genesis 5, and using Archbishop Ussher’s calculations for when creation occurred (and don't argue the calculations given we can work back from the Babylonian captivity and get a similar date), Noah’s Flood supposedly occurred in 2348 BCE, about 700 years after the Sumerian and Egyptian civilizations started, about 200-300 years after the Great Pyramids in Egypt were built and roughly 600 years after Stonehenge began to take shape. Also, archaeologists have discovered skeletal remains from Jericho in Israel and many other locations from this time period. Not surprisingly the skeletons show no unusual signs of aging. Thus either cell degeneration was much slower back then, the ages and genealogy presented in Genesis are inaccurate, or the years should not be interpreted literally. The former suggests the laws of nature have altered with time, which would be highly problematic, while the latter raises an additional issue. Specifically, if the years should not be interpreted literally, then we must either rely on the assumption the genealogical record leaves out many generations, and therefore should not be taken literally, or we must assume the world is much younger than 6,000 years (which becomes really problematic). Regarding Genesis 6-9, there is absolutely no evidence for a worldwide flood about 2348 BCE and all the geological and archaeological evidence contradicts it. For example, the Egyptian civilization began about 3000 BCE and continued unabated to 396 CE. Mesopotamian civilizations began about 3100 BCE and continued until Cyrus of Persia (not Darius) conquered Babylon in 539 BCE. If there had been a worldwide flood that killed all people, except those on the ark with Noah (and apparently the Nephilim), then both of those civilizations, and many other societies, should have ended. I should add archaeologists suggest ancient Israel evolved from the Canaanite culture, with no evidence of a cultural break from roughly 3000 BCE until the Babylonian captivity, yet the Bible suggests they were a completely separate culture that went on a conquering spree (Joshua and Judges), for which there is no evidence. Genesis 8:1 says the world is flooded above the highest mountains so Elohim sends a wind. When wind passes over water it creates waves; a persistent strong wind will cause very large waves. Without obstacles such as land, and with the persistent wind, the waves will simply go around the earth without stopping. That is, of course, assuming the earth is a sphere. However, if the earth were flat then a wind would be very helpful as it could blow the water off the sides. Ancient Near Eastern cultures believed the world was flat. Go figure. Genesis 8:10-11 implies the olive tree survived being submerged under water for at least 150 days (Genesis 8:3) and quickly grew new shoots. Impressive, but I am skeptical. Logically, if the flood story were true, for years after Noah’s flood everyone would still be speaking the same language: hence Genesis 11:1. Unfortunately, archaeologists have written records from both Sumer and Egypt dating between 3100 and 3000 BCE. The Sumerians wrote in cuneiform and the Egyptians in hieroglyphics, and they wrote in different languages. Therefore, approximately 800 or 900 years before the events in this story supposedly take place, we have hard evidence different languages already existed. Based on biblical chronologies Abraham would have lived about the 1900s BCE. However, camels weren't domesticated until roughly 1200 BCE and thus Abraham’s servant could not have delivered camels to Nahor. The term "pharaoh" would not be used until the mid 1300s BCE (Akhenaten was the first to use the title), yet the Genesis texts use it constantly and inappropriately beginning with Abraham. The Philistines, apparently an off-shoot of the Sea Peoples, would not occupy the Gaza region until the 1200s BCE, yet Genesis has them interacting with Abraham. In Genesis 42 it is difficult to imagine how Egypt and Canaan could be suffering droughts that affect both food supplies simultaneously, given that Egypt’s agricultural production was based on the flooding of the Nile, not rainfall in the Mediterranean region. The source of the Nile is thousands of miles to the south, in central Africa. While possible, the likelihood of there being prolonged lack of rainfall in the Mediterranean and thousands of miles away in more tropical central-Eastern Africa is rather slim. According to the biblical chronology, and using Archbishop Ussher’s estimate, Jacob did not arrive in Egypt until about 1768 BCE. Egypt did not have chariots until about the Second Intermediate Period, which would start about 100 years later. Genesis 46:29 can be considered a slight error that alone can be dismissed. However, as with chariots, horses did not arrive into Egypt until the Second Intermediate Period, having arrived with the Hyksos (who did possibly come from Canaan). Genesis 47:17 indicates it was the Egyptians themselves who had horses apparently even before the Israelites arrived. The amount of tax in Egypt varied year by year, based on the flooding of the Nile. When the Nile flooded high, more land was inundated and available for farming, thus taxes were higher. The reverse was true when the flood was low. Special stairways, Nilometers, were stationed along the Nile to measure the height of the flood and determine the amount of tax. The assertion in Genesis 47 that Egyptians paid a set rate of 20% in taxes during this time frame is wrong. Stay tuned for my comments on the other items.